Work Psychology : Understanding Human Behaviour...
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Many psychologists work as health care providers. They assess behavioral and mental function and well-being. Other psychologists study how human beings relate to each other and to machines, and work to improve these relationships.
Starlett Hartley is a PhD student in social psychology at The New School for Social Research where she is the lab manager for the Social and Political Psychology lab and Moral Psychology lab. Her research interests include social and group identity, sacred values, and understanding the moral norms people use when making decisions with ingroup and outgroup members. In particular, she enjoys analyzing political groups, political events, and how the identities we hold lead us to prioritize certain values and outlooks on life. In addition to these research interests, Starlett teaches social psychology to undergraduate students and mentors students in advanced statistics. Her teaching philosophy involves allowing students to engage with critical theory in a fun and engaging way.
This textbook provides a concise and user-friendly introduction to psychology in the modern day workplace. The approach is critical, providing an emphasis on social psychology, with the traditional core topics found on a work psychology course being covered. In addition, the text will also introduce a range of more contemporary topics including relationships at work, emotional intelligence, diversity, and trauma at work. The text is written by a team teaching work psychology and organizational behaviour to HRM and business students. The book provides an accessible and lively introduction to the subject. Within the text there is a wide range of pedagogical features to help readers learn and understand the subject. Each chapter begins with an opening case study, followed by questions to engage the reader with the chapter; there are also mini case examples, reflective questions, section summaries, and activities. To support students using this textbook, an online resource centre provides additional materials including web links, a searchable glossary, revision cards and tests, games and exercises. For lecturers, a range of teaching materials have been developed, including links to video clips, for use in lecturers and seminars. Online Resource Centre For lecturers: PowerPoint slides for each chapter Lecturer's guide with suggestions for teaching and assessment Test bank Video library; web links, by chapter, to online video clips All tables, figures and diagrams from the text For students: Web links Tests, games and exercises eg. stress vulnerability test, success orientation quiz, motivation test Glossary Flashcards Study skills - additional study skills material related specifically to work psychology
Essentially, psychology helps people in large part because it can explain why people act the way they do. With this kind of professional insight, a psychologist can help people improve their decision making, stress management and behavior based on understanding past behavior to better predict future behavior. All of this can help people have a more successful career, better relationships, more self-confidence and overall better communication.
Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior in humans and non-humans. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, including feelings and thoughts. It is an academic discipline of immense scope, crossing the boundaries between the natural and social sciences. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, linking the discipline to neuroscience. As social scientists, psychologists aim to understand the behavior of individuals and groups. Ψ (psi), the first letter of the Greek word psyche from which the term psychology is derived (see below), is commonly associated with the science.
While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts, psychology ultimately aims to benefit society. Many psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing psychotherapy in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Other psychologists conduct scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior. Typically the latter group of psychologists work in academic settings (e.g., universities, medical schools, or hospitals). Another group of psychologists is employed in industrial and organizational settings. Yet others are involved in work on human development, aging, sports, health, forensic science, education, and the media.
The word psychology derives from the Greek word psyche, for spirit or soul. The latter part of the word \"psychology\" derives from -λογία -logia, which refers to \"study\" or \"research\". The Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae (Psychology, on the Nature of the Human Soul) in the late 15th century or early 16th century. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary. The dictionary refers to \"Anatomy, which treats the Body, and Psychology, which treats of the Soul.\"
In 1890, William James defined psychology as \"the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions.\" This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who in 1913 asserted that the discipline is a \"natural science\", the theoretical goal of which \"is the prediction and control of behavior.\" Since James defined \"psychology\", the term more strongly implicates scientific experimentation. Folk psychology refers to ordinary people's, as contrasted with psychology professionals', understanding of the mental states and behaviors of people.
The ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, China, India, and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology. In Ancient Egypt the Ebers Papyrus mentioned depression and thought disorders. Historians note that Greek philosophers, including Thales, Plato, and Aristotle (especially in his De Anima treatise), addressed the workings of the mind. As early as the 4th century BC, the Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes. In 387 BCE, Plato suggested that the brain is where mental processes take place, and in 335 BCE Aristotle suggested that it was the heart.
A different strain of experimentalism, with a greater connection to physiology, emerged in South America, under the leadership of Horacio G. Piñero at the University of Buenos Aires. In Russia, too, researchers placed greater emphasis on the biological basis for psychology, beginning with Ivan Sechenov's 1873 essay, \"Who Is to Develop Psychology and How\" Sechenov advanced the idea of brain reflexes and aggressively promoted a deterministic view of human behavior. The Russian-Soviet physiologist Ivan Pavlov discovered in dogs a learning process that was later termed \"classical conditioning\" and applied the process to human beings.
Evolutionary psychology approaches thought and behavior from a modern evolutionary perspective. This perspective suggests that psychological adaptations evolved to solve recurrent problems in human ancestral environments. Evolutionary psychologists attempt to find out how human psychological traits are evolved adaptations, the results of natural selection or sexual selection over the course of human evolution.
Social psychology is concerned with how behaviors, thoughts, feelings, and the social environment influence human interactions. Social psychologists study such topics as the influence of others on an individual's behavior (e.g. conformity, persuasion) and the formation of beliefs, attitudes, and stereotypes about other people. Social cognition fuses elements of social and cognitive psychology for the purpose of understanding how people process, remember, or distort social information. The study of group dynamics involves research on the nature of leadership, organizational communication, and related phenomena. In recent years, social psychologists have become interested in implicit measures, mediational models, and the interaction of person and social factors in accounting for behavior. Some concepts that sociologists have applied to the study of psychiatric disorders, concepts such as the social role, sick role, social class, life events, culture, migration, and total institution, have influenced social psychologists. 59ce067264